The Structure and Classification of the Hand-to-Hand Combat

From the ancient times before the firearms were created the combat appeared to be a hand-to-hand fighting between warriors armed with cold arms (a sword, a dagger, a lance etc.). The hand-to-hand combat with a bayonet as a cold arms and a buttstock is called a bayonet fighting.

The bayonet fighting started to develop as a kind of fencing after the bayonet was invented in 1676 in France.

The creation of the firearms made it possible to harm the enemy at a distance, before the hand-to-hand fighting. The battle started with the  hitting the enemy with fire, after the sides were approaching each other and finally they started the hand-to-hand combat.

On the occasion of an automatic weapon the bayonet fighting lost its former significance but wasn’t forgotten…

Nowadays the hand-to-hand combat may happen when you fight in a borough, at night, in the forest, in trenches and other extreme cases.

The most complete and accurate definition of the hand-to-hand combat is given in the field manual of the land forces: «The hand-to-hand combat is the variety of the close combat where the opposed sides apply different holds from martial arts and use various weapons, objects, equipments and all means at their disposal or work without any of them at the distance of direct contact with each other.»  (The Field Manual of the Land Forces, part 3).

The hand-to-hand combat is divided according to the number of the participants, available technology, variety of actions etc.

One of the main characteristics of the hand-to-hand combat is the distance. The hand-to-hand combat starts at the distance that makes it possible to defeat the opponent using weapons or some objects at hand.

The distance depends on the tactics of the fighting and available equipments.
The hand-to hand combat is based on the following sciences: mathematics, physics, mechanics, biomechanics, physiology and others.

It is their derivative that allows unifying and optimizing the process of the hand-to-hand fighting today. It is a branch of the system of survival aimed at the constant operational readiness.

There are following kinds of actions in the hand-to-hand combat: attack, counterattack and defence.

Don’t think of the hand-to-hand fighting as selfdefence because it includes attack as well as   defence. Besides the defence may serve as a method of defeating the opponent and the attack – as a way to protect oneself and as a logical continuation of the defence.

As a rule the hand-to-hand combat lasts no longer than 1-1.5 minutes and starts from the stand (the opponents approach each other) and ends on the ground.

For making the contemporary thinking of a man as a fighter we need special representation of the physical essence of the main laws and principles of mechanics.The process of the hand-to-hand combat should be stated clear and accurate as it reflects the state of science, technology, psychology and pedagogy.

In the hand-to-hand combat a man (a fighter) is regarded as psycobiomechanical system meaning a person in his total physical and social nature of Life itself.

In the process of studying the hand-to-hand combat as a branch of learning, people obtain skills to solve numerous problems in the extreme conditions of our epoch.

The chief postulate of the hand-to-hand combat is the vitality of a human being. He should and must preserve his life and health to fulfill the task. He should overcome the opponent due to his knowledge, skills, fortitude and devotion.

The vitality is a quality to resist different negative impacts and, when injured, his ability to restore (completely or partially) the fighting strength.

The hand-to-hand combat is a fight where opponents aim to put each other out of action or capture. They use cold arms, small arms, grenades, different means at one’s disposal, barehanded fighting and other means that ensure overcoming the enemy and fulfilling the task.

The hand-to-hand combat is a fight at the close distance with the invisible weapon, the one you’ll never see until you use it and you’ll never take away from a man as long as he’s alive.

The stages of the hand-to-hand combat:

1.    meeting the opponent (a person should instantly analyze the situation);
2.    approaching (a fighter should make the decision about the ways of influence)
3.    final stage (termination or neutralization of the opponent).

The forms of the hand-to-hand fighting:

–    combat without weapons (it is implied in the name “hand-to-hand combat”);
–    combat when the opponents use weapons or some objects available.

Types of the hand-to-hand combat:

  • battle;
  • sport (demonstrative and exhibition type)
  • relatively combat.
Classification of the actions in the hand-to-hand combat:

–    an attack;
–    a defence;
–    a counterattack;
–    combined actions.

There are three types of the hand-to-hand combat according to the number of the participants:
  • individual (single);
  • group;
  • mass.

The core of the Kadochnokov hand-to-hand combat is the system of saving your energy. You can use only 25% of tour strength against the opponent (his weight and height doesn’t matter) and turn his force against him.

The Kadochnikov Systema is the private safeguarding technique that allows surviving in any conditions. You can escape from any most difficult situation and remain safe and sound. “A man can always find a way out if he really wants it!”

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